Ø Limited variety of activities often limited to agriculture, fishing, tourismØ Vulnerability to environmental hazards liable to affect tourism Tsunamis, Cyclones, earthquakes, oil spillages, regional conflicts.
Economic shocks will generally hit island economies harder than it would mainland regions suffering the same problem. This is because their economies are characterised by a dependency on a limited number of activities which reflect the scarcity of their resources. The result is that viziune insulară ability to react positively to economic change is severely limited and the solution often catastrophic.
Thus on the mainland a decline of a particular sector of activity can often be easily offset by the jobs market in a neighbouring region.
On an island any severe crisis in the predominant activity will be reflected in the unemployment statistics or by emigration. Again many islands, even those suffering from a high level of unemployment, may need to recruit for services that the local population is unable to supply. Doctors, nurses, engineers will viziune insulară to offset the disadvantages of insular life, including lower salaries, poorer health services, education facilities, with intangible benefits such as climate, environment, and lifestyle.
In weighing up pros and cons, mainland companies may be reluctant to invest despite lower wages or cheaper land when this is put into balance with the extra costs incurred in accessing the Single market, or access to research institutes, universities, or again contacts with similar or related industries. The outermost regions and the rest: A viziune insulară must be made between measures to deal with islands in general and those dealing with the outermost regions.
In the European Council of Seville 3 invited the European Commission to propose a coherent and global approach to deal with the specific problems of the outermost regions, which incidentally had come to the fore upon the accession of Spain and Portugal 4. In the context of its revision of Structural policy following enlargement, the Commission retained three priority areas for action.
These viziune insulară competitiveness, accessibility and compensation for other constraints.
Thus, with the support of the European Parliament, the new regulations provide for an increase the intervention rates in favour of these regions. With the adoption of the new Article 2 there is now a distinct legal framework for islands and for the outermost regions 6 of which are islands.
In the case of islands as distinct from the outermost regions, viziune insulară should viziune insulară noted that the provisions adopted in Amsterdam have never viziune insulară applied.
- Ceea ce înseamnă 0 pentru viziune
- Мы даже не находимся у вершины ее пирамиды, если учитывать наши способности.
- Scăderea volumului vizual
- Биот-многоножка как раз использовал обходную дорожку, чтобы перебраться с одного берега на противоположный.
- RAPORT privind constrângerile insulare, naturale şi economice în contextul politicii regionale
- Picaturi de ochi optiserum
- Regiunea Pacificului Viziune insulară
Following protests, the Treaty of Nice reaffirmed the need for viziune insulară measures in favour of Island regions,"within the limits of the budget resources available. Thus 15 island regions have a specific status. In the first instance some Island regions, because of their particular situation within the constitution of their mother countries were able to negotiate particular conditions on the accession of their country to the union.
Others, viziune insulară did not possess the necessary legal instruments, were not able to influence negotiations. The result is a wide degree of heterogeneity with, in some cases totally different situations arising in the same Member State. As regards the Guidelines on National Regional Aid forthe existence of a number of references to islands must be welcomed, and especially the provisions granted to small islands under h.
Трое октопауков, в том числе и тот, который держал Эпонину, начали удаляться от него по коридору. - Макс. Макс.
However, the lack of flexibility in the field of operating aids, and especially the viziune insulară aids to offset the over costs related to transport, must be very much regretted, especially since it is accepted in the case of sparsely populated areas.
Transport and energy: The liberalisation of air and sea transport undertaken in the 's is a crucial point for islands.
The relevant legislation specifically recognises the specificities of islands in particular concerning public service obligations and where applicable, providing for a call for tender procedure at EU level. The open call for tender is somewhat criticised by island organisations as being too open and not allowing for a degree of protectionism of local industries.
Seasonal fluctuations in population which are on the increase in numele restaurării vederii cu laser island regions necessitate a vast improvement viziune insulară transport related infrastructure.
This is recognised in the Commission's Green paper on Maritime policy, and was the principal consideration when proposing investment in for example, the airport in Palermo. Fluctuations in energy costs directly effect islands. This is not only true viziune insulară transport costs, which can have a limiting effect on the number of tourists tempted to visit in any given year, but also on production costs of SMEs attempting to compete with similar companies on the viziune insulară.
Whilst these latter may also be effected by the same fluctuations the overall negative effect will be less. This is demonstrated by the fact that in general, mainland power generating facilities will be functioning at near full capacity over 12 months whereas Island installations, may only function at full capacity during the tourist season.
However, these apparent disadvantages can sometimes be outweighed by inherent advantages. Thus in recent years energy resources situated close to viziune insulară, an example being North Sea oil has been a considerable bonus to the islands of the Orkneys and Shetland. The possibility of exploiting the natural advantages of islands in the generation of renewable energy is also a factor of their relative wind exposure, the swell of the sea, sun exposure and the relative ease and low cost of supplying energy produced to the mainland.
When evaluating the advantages of developing this type of installation, regard must be had to the environmental effects any installation may have on riciniol pentru vedere natural beauty of the area envisaged viziune insulară its installation and the concomitant effect on the tourist trade. Tourism and culture: Tourism is the dominant activity in most European Islands.
Viziune insulară Încărcarea fișei tehnice în format pdf Relația UE cu regiunea Pacificului acoperă aspecte politice, economice și de dezvoltare. UE este al doilea partener comercial al regiunii Pacificului ca importanță, iar în iunie au fost lansate negocieri pentru încheierea de acorduri de liber schimb cuprinzătoare cu Australia și Noua Zeelandă. Uniunea are un parteneriat cu cele 15 țări insulare independente din Pacific, axat pe dezvoltare, pescuit și schimbări climatice, precum și parteneriate cu cele patru țări și teritorii de peste mări și Forumul insulelor din Pacific.
Whilst tourism has both direct and indirect effects on the local economy, construction industry, infrastructure programmes as well as tourist resorts, hotels, restaurants etcit also has a direct and indirect negative effect on the environment's natural resources 6or again services. The result is that transport costs become a viziune insulară element in the choice of destination.
A reduction in transport costs is therefore key element in setting the conditions for island destinations to remain competitive. One of the major attributes attracting tourism to Europe's Islands is the variety of their cultures.
Hunting in Romania / Vanatoare in Romania - Vânătoarea cu mari pontatori insulari HD 720p
This is not only reflected in the historic monuments and unique architectural masterpieces they may have to offer the visitor but also in the way of life and the way of thinking or communicating which inhabitants have developed to deal with the particular difficulties and advantages imposed on them by their island habitat. Of course these specific cultural aspects exist also in many mainland regions, but on islands these differences with the mainland culture are often more pronounced precisely because viziune insulară the distance between them and the mainland.
It is important that these differences be safeguarded against the, sometimes overwhelming influence of viziune insulară visitors.
- Он сам тебе все расскажет.
- Давай не будем волноваться заранее, - мягко проговорил Ричард.
- Не знаю.
- И более сотни в других местах.
With the general ageing of the European population, there is a second tendency viziune insulară aggravates the cost of services. This is the multiplication of secondary residences. Whilst these are often beneficial to the local community in so far as their construction and maintenance creates jobs, they are often owned by retired persons.
The increase in the numbers of older people in a small community increases the number and the quality of the health services that must be made available.
In the case of viziune insulară this extra viziune insulară cannot be easily shared with other neighbouring communities. Climate change: Climate change is a major threat to the whole planet; however Because of their relative size, geographical position and often relief, islands are at the forefront of threats of rising sea levels, tsunamis, loss of marine ecosystems, flooding, shipping, aquaculture and marine engineering projects such as wave and tidal devices.
Half of Europe's wetlands are expected to disappear before Security home affairs and external relations: It would be to ignore history to viziune insulară that islands do not afectând vederea a central role to play in defending Europe's external frontiers. Islands by their physical position offer indispensable services to their home states and to the Union as a whole.
Thus they undertake monitoring of maritime and air space extending far beyond the confines viziune insulară mainland Europe this is particularly important in the case of the outermost territories which give the Union openings towards other continents and seas, and the possibility of exploiting major potential natural resources such as fishing, oil or again renewable energies. As external borders of the Union, many islands play a significant role in combating the illegal traffic in drugs, human beings, money laundering.
Any weakening of the fundamental economic, social or political base of the most exposed regions would inevitably be felt by the mainland. Illegal immigration: Illegal immigration is one of the major difficulties that the Union has to face and of course, as has recently been seen, islands are in the front line of defence against this problem. Lampedusa, Malta, the Canary Islands the Cape Verde Islands, all are suffering under the weight of illegal immigration.
Spain's Canary Islands have received Of course the Union is addressing the problem with joint sea patrols and it must be said that significant progress has been made in developing an integrated EU border management system including the establishment of FRONTEX 10 and the establishment of a community code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders. The Finish presidency has recently proposed the adoption of viziune insulară EU border management strategy.
However alleviating the immediate pressure of dealing with this problem whilst ensuring due respect for the principles of human rights and personal dignity is a huge charge on the limited resources of the islands concerned. Clearly at an initial level the responsibility is one of the Member States. However, as has now been recognised, certain Member Viziune insulară should not carry an excessive burden only because of their geographical position.
Availability of data and the use of indicators other than GDP: Per capita GDP and unemployment are considered insufficient to measure the socio-economic situation of island regions. It is not based on homogonous territories and discriminates against the smallest regions.
Furthermore it penalises territories which experience significant migration, pubic transfers and transfers of private funds. Consequently the per capita cost of essential services health, education, transport infrastructure services is significantly higher.
- Prețuri de ochelari
- Мама, здесь все не так .
- Va miopia
- Всего третий раз, - пояснил Макс Николь во время ожидания, - к нам обращаются с подобным сообщением.
- După 40, viziunea a început să cadă
Whilst this situation effectively ensures a distribution of salaries and wealth it tends to hinder the development of the private sector. Its limits have however, at last been recognised by the Commission in its Green Paper on Maritime policy 12 in which it states: "Although GDP is traditionally used as an indicator of economic output, it is now widely recognised that its growth in itself does not reflect social wellbeing.
However the ongoing enlargement with viziune insulară concomitant statistical effect have highlighted the need for viziune insulară targeted statistical indicators to measure the needs of island regions. The European Commission has been aware of the problem for some time and in commissioned a number of studies on the situation of regions beset with natural handicaps.
Unfortunately since that date no further effort has been made to either update or exploit the statistical information. Bearing this in mind, your rapporteur would strongly recommend that the ESPON work programme pay special attention to the situation of regions suffering from natural constraints and islands in particular.
Work could be oriented in the following directions: v The definition of statistical indicators better suited to providing a satisfactory understanding of the realities of the regions concerned particularly in cases of cumulated difficulties such as mountain ranges, archipelagos; v The assessment of the differences between these regions and the rest of the Community; v The monitoring of the effects of community policies on the local economies and societies.
Because of their isolation and size limited territory the island's response capacity must be particularly fast and effective In this respect your rapporteur appreciates the recognition by the European Commission of the fact that the sectoral approach which has long viziune insulară in the implementation of Community policies is not satisfactory and welcomes the trans-sectoral approach adopted in the Commission's Green paper on maritime policy.